Thermodynamic Studies on the Sorption of Lead (II), Chromium (III) and Manganese (II) ions onto Acid-Activated Shale

  • I. R. Ilaboya University of Benin
  • J. S. Okpoko Benson Idahosa University
Keywords: Adsorbent, Adsorption temperature, Chemical analysis, Microstructural arrangement, Thermodynamic parameters


Shale mineral in its raw form was collected, processed, calcinated and activated using tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid. The microstructural arrangement and chemical composition of the raw, calcinated and acid-activated shale was determined using x-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscope to verify its ability for the removal of Pb2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ from wastewater. Batch experimental method was used to study the effect of different adsorption parameters on the sorption efficiency of shale. The effect of temperature on the sorption of Pb2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ on acid-activated shale was investigated at varied temperature of 15 – 40 . The calculated value of enthalpy () was 12.50 kJ/mol for Pb2+ adsorption, 5 kJ/mol for Cr3+ and 11 kJ/mol for Mn2+ adsorption. The calculated values of Gibbs free energy () varies from -6.576 kJ/mol to 1.358 kJ/mol for Pb2+ adsorptions, from -2.696 kJ/mol to 0.192 kJ/mol for Cr3+ adsorptions, and -4.994 kJ/mol to 1.870 kJ/mol for Mn2+ adsorptions. The entropy () range is 38.68 – 60.946 kJ/mol for Pb2+ adsorptions, 16.69 – 24.58 kJ/mol for Cr3+ adsorptions, and 31.70 – 51.10 kJ/mol for Mn2+ adsorptions. The positive value of  shows that the adsorption of Pb2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ onto acid-activated shale was an endothermic process. The values of  are negative at temperature of 298 K and above for the three metal ions studied, which confirmed that the adsorption of Pb2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ on acid-activated shale was a spontaneous process. The decline in  with increasing adsorption temperature showed that adsorptions of Pb2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ onto acid-activated shale became better at higher temperature while the positive value of  for all metal ions studied showed the amplified arbitrariness at the solid-solution interface during the fixation of the adsorbate on the active site of acid-activated shale.


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How to Cite
Ilaboya, I. R., & Okpoko, J. S. (2021). Thermodynamic Studies on the Sorption of Lead (II), Chromium (III) and Manganese (II) ions onto Acid-Activated Shale. International Journal of Emerging Scientific Research, 2, 10-18.
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