Thermodynamic Studies on the Sorption of Lead (II), Chromium (III) and Manganese (II) ions onto Acid-Activated Shale
Shale mineral in its raw form was collected, processed, calcinated and activated using tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid. The microstructural arrangement and chemical composition of the raw, calcinated and acid-activated shale was determined using x-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscope to verify its ability for the removal of Pb2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ from wastewater. Batch experimental method was used to study the effect of different adsorption parameters on the sorption efficiency of shale. The effect of temperature on the sorption of Pb2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ on acid-activated shale was investigated at varied temperature of 15 – 40 . The calculated value of enthalpy () was 12.50 kJ/mol for Pb2+ adsorption, 5 kJ/mol for Cr3+ and 11 kJ/mol for Mn2+ adsorption. The calculated values of Gibbs free energy () varies from -6.576 kJ/mol to 1.358 kJ/mol for Pb2+ adsorptions, from -2.696 kJ/mol to 0.192 kJ/mol for Cr3+ adsorptions, and -4.994 kJ/mol to 1.870 kJ/mol for Mn2+ adsorptions. The entropy () range is 38.68 – 60.946 kJ/mol for Pb2+ adsorptions, 16.69 – 24.58 kJ/mol for Cr3+ adsorptions, and 31.70 – 51.10 kJ/mol for Mn2+ adsorptions. The positive value of shows that the adsorption of Pb2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ onto acid-activated shale was an endothermic process. The values of are negative at temperature of 298 K and above for the three metal ions studied, which confirmed that the adsorption of Pb2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ on acid-activated shale was a spontaneous process. The decline in with increasing adsorption temperature showed that adsorptions of Pb2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ onto acid-activated shale became better at higher temperature while the positive value of for all metal ions studied showed the amplified arbitrariness at the solid-solution interface during the fixation of the adsorbate on the active site of acid-activated shale.
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