An Implementation of K-NN Classification Algorithm for Detecting Impersonators in Online Examination Environment

  • I. O. Izu-Okpara Federal University of Technology Owerri
  • O. C. Nwokonkwo Federal University of Technology Owerri
  • A. M. John-Otumu Federal University of Technology Owerri
Keywords: Computer Networks, Impersonation, K-NN Classification, Machine Classification, Online Examination


The online examination platforms also known as computer-based testing (CBT) platforms for conducting mass-driven examinations over computer networks to eliminate certain issues such as delay in marking, misplacement of scripts, monitoring, etc., associated with the conventional Pen and Paper Type (PPT) of examination have also been bedeviled with the issue of impersonation commonly associated with the PPT system. The existing online examination platforms rely on passive mechanisms such as the CCTV system and the human invigilators for monitoring the examination halls against cheating and impersonation. The proposed model integrates some level of intelligence into existing online examination prototype by designing and developing an intelligent agent service that could assess students against impersonation threat in an online examination environment using the K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) machine learning classification technique considering the level of accuracy and response time in answering the questions. A total of 3,083 dataset was downloaded from an online repository; 80% (2,466) of the dataset was used for training the model, while 20% (617) dataset was used in testing the model to enable the model detect unseen data correctly. Results showed that the developed model has a 99.99% accuracy rate, precision, recall and f-score.


Download data is not yet available.


M. Ajinaja, “The design and implementation of a computer-based testing system using component-based software engineering,” International Journal of Computer Science and Technology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 58 – 65, 2017.

O. Adebayo, and S. M. Abdulhamid, “E-exams system for Nigerian universities with emphasis on security and results integrity,” International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 1 – 12, 2009.

H. M. Ismail, and B. M. Soye, “Biometric enabled computer-based testing system with advanced encryption standard,” Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1 – 8, 2018.

M. Ismail, and P. A. Shami, “Computer-based vs paper-based examinations: perception of university teachers,” The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 371 – 381, 2012.

T. M. Fagbola, A. A. Adigun, and A. O. Oke, “Computer based test (CBT) system for university academic enterprise examination,” International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 336 – 342, 2013.

S. O. Kuyoro, G. U. Maminor, R. U. Kanu, and O. Akande, “The design and implementation of a computer-based testing system,” Journal of Applied Computation, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1 – 7, 2016.

E. Delen, “Enhancing a computer-based testing environment with optimum item response time,” Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1457-1472, 2015.

N. E. Gronlund, and R. L. Linn, “Measurement and evaluation in teaching,” 6th Edition, MacMillan, New York, 1990.

T. H. Wang, S. C. Huang, W. L. Wang, and L. Y. Kuo, “Development of a web-based assessment system: A case study,” Proceedings of the 6th Global Chinese Conference on Computers in Education/National Education In-formalization Forum, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China, pp. 385 – 388, 14 – 16 June 2002.

A. R. Taylor, “A future in the process of arrival: Using computer technologies for the assessment of student learning,” Kelowna, British Columbia: Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education, 2005

A. Suleiman and N. Nachandiya, “Computer based testing (CBT) system for GST exams in Adamawa State University, Mubi,” Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1 – 11, 2018

H. Jeong, “A comparative study of scores on computer-based tests and paper-based tests,” Behavior and Information Technology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 410 – 422, 2014.

Y. P. Chua and Z. M. Don, “Effects of computer-based educational achievement test on test performance and test takers’ motivation,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1889 – 1895, 2013.

F. Kaya and E. Delen, “A computer-based peer nomination form to identify gifted and talented students,” The Australasian Journal of Gifted Education, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 29 – 36, 2014.

P. Schatz and J. Browndyke, “Applications of computer-based neuropsychological assessment,” Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 395 – 410, 2002.

C. P. Newhouse, “Computer-based exams in schools: freedom from the limitations of paper,” Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 431 – 447, 2013.

S. M. Al-Saleem and H. Ullah, “Security considerations and recommendations in computer-based testing,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1 – 7, 2014.

T. O. Omotehinwa and D. S. Durojaye, “Computer based test: Security and results integrity,” International Journal of Computer and Information Technology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 324 – 329, 2013.

O. Oluwole, “Design and implementation of an open-source computer-based testing system with end user impact analysis in Africa,” International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 17 – 24, 2015.

Y. Zhenming, Z. Liang, and Z. Guohua, “A novel web-based online examination system for computer science education,” 33rd ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, S3F-7-S3F-10. 2003.

Y. Yuan-Lung, H. Tsung-Chih, C. Li-Chaun, “Development of a web-based online examination system,” East Sea Management Comment, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 109 – 120, 2005.

V. Indoria, P. Sharma and A. Soni, “Online examination,” International School of Informatics and Management, 2012.

M. Z. Rashad, M. S. Kandil, A. E. Hassan, and M. A. Zaher, “An Arabic web-based examination management system,” International Journal of Electrical and Computer Sciences, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 35 – 41, 2010.

K. Henke, “Web-based test, examination and assessment system,” Advanced Technology for Learning, vol. 4, no. 3, 2007; DOI: 10.2316/Journal.208.2007.3.208-0911

C. K. Ayo, I. O. Akinyemi, A. A. Adebiyi, and U. O. Ekong, “The prospects of e-examination implementation in Nigeria,” Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 125 – 135, 2007.

O. Akinsanmi, O. T. R. Agbaji, and M. B. Soroyewun, “Development of an e-assessment platform for Nigerian universities,” Research Journal Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 170 - 175, 2010.

T. Taşci, Z. Parlak, A. Kibar, N. Taşbaşi, and H. I. Cebeci, “A novel agent-supported academic online examination system,” Educational Technology & Society, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 154 – 168, 2014.

Z. Qian-fang, and L. Yong-fei, “Research and development of online examination system,” In proceedings of the 2012 2nd International Conference of Computer and Information Applications, 2012.

O. A. Adewale, T. O. Ajadi, and J. O. Inegbedion, “Perception of learners on electronic examination in open and distance learning institutions: a case study of National Open University of Nigeria,” US-China Education Review, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 639 – 644, 2011.

I. Y. Mohammed and S. H. Maysam, “Construction of an online examination system with resumption and randomization capabilities,” International Journal of Computing Academic Research, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 62 – 82, 2015.

How to Cite
Izu-Okpara, I. O., Nwokonkwo, O. C., & John-Otumu, A. M. (2021). An Implementation of K-NN Classification Algorithm for Detecting Impersonators in Online Examination Environment. Journal of Advances in Computing, Communications and Information Technology, 1, 8-17.
Research Articles